河北快3走势图

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英飞凌IGBT厂家 > 英飞凌IGBT模块问答 > IGBT是什么?igbt模块是什么?

IGBT是什么?igbt模块是什么?

编辑 :

SHENZHENYISHENGTONGKEJIYOUXIANGONGSI

时间 : 2018-09-18 20:50 浏览量 : 39

igbt


河北快3走势图  DIANDEFAXIANSHIRENLEILISHIDEGEMING,YOUTACHANSHENGDEDONGNENGMEITIANDOUZAIYUANYUANBUDUANDESHIFANG,RENDUIDIANDEXUQIUBUYAYURENLEISHIJIEDEYANGQI,RUGUOMEIYOUDIAN,RENLEIDEWENMINGHAIHUIZAIHEIANZHONGTANSUO。

  然而在电力电子里面,最重要的一个元件就是IGBT。没有IGBT就不会有高铁的便捷生活。

河北快3走势图  YISHUOQIIGBT,BANDAOTIZHIZAODERENDOUYIWEIBUJIUSHIYIGEFENLIQIJIAN(Power Disceret)MA,DOUHENQIAOBUSHANGYAN。RANERTAHE28nm/16nmJICHENGDIANLUZHIZAOYIYANG,SHIGUOJIA“02ZHUANXIANG”DEZHONGDIANFUCHIXIANGMU,ZHEIWANYISHIXIANZAIMUQIANGONGLVDIANZIQIJIANLIJISHUZUIXIANJINDECHANPIN,YIJINGQUANMIANQUDAILECHUANTONGDEPower mosFET,QIYINGYONGFEICHANGGUANGFAN,XIAODAOJIADIAN、DADAOFEIJI、JIANCHUAN、JIAOTONG、DIANWANGDENGZHANLVEXINGCHANYE,BEICHENGWEIDIANLIDIANZIXINGYELIDE“CPU”,ZHANGQIYILAI,GAICHANPIN(BAOKUOXINPIAN)HAISHIBEILONGDUANZAISHAOSHUIDMSHOUSHANG(FairChild、Infineon、TOSHIBA),WEIJU“SHIERWU”QIJIANGUOJIA16GEZHONGDAJISHUTUPOZHUANXIANGZHONGDEDIERWEI(JIANCHENG “02ZHUANXIANG”)。

河北快3走势图  JIUJINGIGBTSHIHEFANGSHENSHENG?RANGWOMENYIQILAIXUEXITADELILUNBA。

  1、何为IGBT?

河北快3走势图  IGBTQUANCHENGWEIJUEYUANZHASHUANGJIXINGJINGTIGUAN(Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor),SUOYITASHIYIGEYOUMOS GateDEBJTJINGTIGUAN。QIGUAIBA,TADAODISHIMOSFETHAISHIBJT?QISHIDOUBUSHIYOUDOUSHI。BURAOQUANZILE,TAJIUSHIMOSFETHEBJTDEZUHETI。

  WOZAIQIANMIANJIANGMOSFETHEBJTDESHIHOUTIDAOGUOTAMENDEYOUQUEDIAN,MOSFETZHUYAOSHIDANYIZAILIUZI(DUOZI)DAODIAN,ERBJTSHILIANGZHONGZAILIUZIDAODIAN,SUOYIBJTDEQU DONGDIANLIUHUIBIMOSFETDA,DANSHIMOSFETDEKONGZHIJIZHAJISHIKAOCHANGXIAOYINGFANXINGLAIKONGZHIDE,MEIYOUEWAIDEKONGZHIDUANGONGLVSUNHAO。SUOYIIGBTJIUSHILIYONGLEMOSFETHEBJTDEYOUDIANZUHEQILAIDE,JIANYOUMOSFETDEZHAJIDIANYAKONGZHIJINGTIGUAN(GAOSHURUZUKANG),YOULIYONGLEBJTDESHUANGZAILIUZIDADAODADIANLIU(DIDAOTONGYAJIANG)DEMUDE (Voltage-Controlled Bipolar Device)。CONGERDADAOQUDONGGONGLVXIAO、BAOHEYAJIANGDIDEWANMEIYAOQIU,GUANGFANYINGYONGYU600VYISHANGDEBIANLIUXITONGRUJIAOLIUDIANJI、BIANPINQI、KAIGUANDIANYUAN、ZHAOMINGDIANLU、QIANYINCHUANDONGDENGLINGYU。

  

igbt模块


  2、传统的功率MOSFET

河北快3走势图  WEILEDENGYIXIABIANYULIJIEIGBT,WOHAISHIXIANJIANGXIAPower MOSFETDEJIEGOU。SUOWEIGONGLVMOSJIUSHIYAOCHENGSHOUDAGONGLV,HUANYANZHIYEJIUSHIGAODIANYA、DADIANLIU。WOMENJIEHEYIBANDEDIYAMOSFETLAIJIANGJIERUHEGAIBIANJIEGOUSHIXIANGAOYA、DADIANLIU。

  

电路图


河北快3走势图  1)GAODIANYA:YIBANDEMOSFETRUGUODrainDEGAODIANYA,HENRONGYIDAOZHIQIJIANJICHUAN,ERYIBANJICHUANTONGDAOJIUSHIQIJIANDELINGWAISANDUAN(S/G/B),SUOYIYAOJIEJUEGAOYAWENTIBIXUDUSIZHEISANDUAN。GateDUANZHINENGKAOCHANGYANGDIANZAIGateXIAMIANGELIYULOUDEJULI(Field-Plate),ERBulkDUANDEPNJIEJICHUANZHINENGKAOJIANGDIPNJIELIANGBIANDENONGDU,ERZUITAOYANDESHIDAOSourceDUAN,TAZEXUYAOYIGEZHANGZHANGDEPIAOYIQULAIZUOWEILOUJICHUANLIANDIANZUFENYA,SHIDEDIANYADOUJIANGZAIPIAOYIQUSHANGJIUKEYILE。

河北快3走势图  2) DADIANLIU:YIBANDEMOSFETDEGOUDAOZHANGDUYOUPoly CDJUEDING,ERGONGLVMOSFETDEGOUDAOSHIKAOLIANGCIKUOSANDEJIESHENCHALAIKONGZHI,SUOYIZHIYAOprocessWENDINGJIUKEYIZUODEHENXIAO,ERQIEBUSHOUGUANGKEJINGDUDEXIANZHI。ERQIJIANDEDIANLIUQUJUEYUW/L,SUOYIRUGUOYAOHUODEDADIANLIU,ZHIXUYAOTIGAOWJIUKEYILE。

  SUOYISHANGMIANDEPower MOSFETYEJIAOZUOLDMOS (Lateral Double diffusion MOS)。SUIRANZHEIYANGDEQIJIANNENGGOUSHIXIANDAGONGLVYAOQIU,KESHITAYIRANYOUTAGUYOUDEQUEDIAN,YOUYUTADEYUAN、ZHA、LOUSANDUANDOUZAIBIAOMIAN,SUOYILOUJIYUYUANJIXUYAOLADEHENZHANG,TAILANGFEIXINPIANMIANJI。ERQIEYOUYUQIJIANZAIBIAOMIANZEQIJIANYUQIJIANZHIJIANRUGUOYAOBINGLIANZEFUZAXINGZENGJIAERQIEXUYAOGELI。SUOYIHOULAIFAZHANLEVDMOS(Vertical DMOS),BALOUJITONGYIFANGDAOWaferBEIMIANQULE,ZHEIYANGLOUJIHEYUANJIDEPIAOYIQUZHANGDUWANQUANKEYITONGGUOBEIMIANJIANBOLAIKONGZHI,ERQIEZHEIYANGDEJIEGOUGENGLIYUGUANZIZHIJIANDEBINGLIANJIEGOUSHIXIANDAGONGLVHUA。DANSHIZAIBCDDEGONGYIZHONGHAISHIDELIYONGLDMOSJIEGOU,WEILEYUCMOSJIANRONG。

  ZAIJIDAJIAJIANGYIXIAVDMOSDEFAZHANJIYANBIANBA,ZUIZAODEVDMOSJIUSHIZHIJIEBALDMOSDEDrainFANGDAOLEBEIMIANTONGGUOBEIMIANJIANBO、Implant、JINSHUZHENGFAZHIZUOCHULAIDE(RUXIATU),TAJIUSHICHUANSHUOZHONGDEPlanar VDMOS,TAHECHUANTONGDELDMOSBITIAOZHANZAIYUBEIMIANGONGYI。DANSHITADEHAOCHUSHIZHENGMIANDEGONGYIYUCHUANTONGCMOSGONGYIJIANRONG,SUOYITAHAISHIYOUSHENGMINGLIDE。DANSHIZHEIZHONGJIEGOUDEQUEDIANZAIYUTAGOUDAOSHIHENGZAIBIAOMIANDE,MIANJILIYONGLVHAISHIBUGOUGAO。

  ZAIHOULAIWEILEKEFUPlanar DMOSDAILAIDEQUEDIAN,SUOYIFAZHANLEVMOSHEUMOSJIEGOU。TAMENDEZUOFASHIZAIWaferBIAOMIANWAYIGECAO,BAGUANZIDEGOUDAOCONGYUANLAIDEPlanarBIANCHENGLEYANZHECAOBIDE vertical,GUORANSHIGECONGMINGDEXIANGFA。DANSHIYIGEXIANBINGZONGSHIHUIDAPEIYIGEXIANJING(ICZHIZAOZONGSHIZAIBUDUANtrade-off),ZHEIYANGDEJIEGOUTIANSHENGDEQUEDIANSHICAOTAISHENRONGYIDIAN CHANGJIZHONGERDAOZHIJICHUAN,ERQIEGONGYINANDUHECHENGBENDOUHENGAO,QIECAODEDIBUBIXUJUEDUIrouding,FOUZEHENRONGYIJICHUANHUOZHECHANSHENGYINGLIDEJINGGEQUEXIAN。DANSHITADEYOUDIANSHIJINGBAOSHULIANGBIYUANLAIDUOHENDUO,SUOYIKEYISHIXIANGENGDUODEJINGTIGUANBINGLIAN,BIJIAOSHIHEDIDIANYADADIANLIUDEapplication。

  

vumos结构


河北快3走势图  HAIYOUYIGEJINGDIANDEDONGXIJIAOZUOCoolMOS,DAJIAZIJIgoogleXUEXIBA。TAYINGGAISUANSHIPower MOSCHENGDIANYAZUIGAODELE,KEYIDAO1000V。

  3、IGBT的结构和原理

河北快3走势图  SHANGMIANJIESHAOLEPower MOSFET,ERIGBTQISHIBENZHISHANGHAISHIYIGECHANGXIAOYINGJINGTIGUAN,CONGJIEGOUSHANGKANHEPower MOSFETFEICHANGJIEJIN,JIUZAIBEIMIANDELOUDIANJIZENGJIALEYIGEP+CENG,WOMENCHENGZHIWEIInjection Layer (MINGZIDEYOULAIDENGXIASHUO).。ZAISHANGMIANJIESHAODEPower MOSFETQISHIGENBENSHANGLAIJIANGTAHAISHICHUANTONGDEMOSFET,TAYIRANSHIDANYIZAILIUZI(DUOZI)DAODIAN,SUOYIWOMENHAIMEIYOUFAHUICHUTADEJIZHIXINGNENG。SUOYIHOULAIFAZHANCHUYIGEXINDEJIE GOU,WOMENRUHENENGGOUZAIPower MOSFETDAOTONGDESHIHOUCHULEMOSFETZIJIDEDIANZIWOHAINENGCONGLOUDUANZHURUKONGXUEBUJIUKEYILEMA?SUOYIZIRANDEJIUZAILOUDUANYINRULEYIGEP+DEinjection layer (ZHEIJIUSHIMINGZIDEYOULAI),ERCONGJIEGOUSHANGLOUDUANJIUDUOLEYIGEP+/N-driftDEPNJIE,BUGUOTASHIZHENGPIANDE,SUOYITABUYINGXIANGDAOTONGFANERZENGJIALEKONGXUEZHURUXIAOYING,SUOYITADETEXINGJIULEISIBJTLEYOULIANGZHONGZAILIUZICANYUDAODIAN。SUOYIYUANLAIDEsourceJIUBIANCHENGLEEmitter,ERDrainJIUBIANCHENGLECollectorLE。

  

collector


河北快3走势图  CONGSHANGMIANJIEGOUYIJIYOUBIANDEDENGXIAODIANLUTUKANCHU,TAYOULIANGGEDENGXIAODEBJTBEIKAOBEILIANJIEQILAIDE,TAQISHIJIUSHIPNPNDEThyristor(JINGZHAGUAN),ZHEIGEDONGXIBUSHIWOMENKEYIZUODE,ERSHIJIEGOUSHENGCHENGDE。WOZAI5GEYUEQIANYOUPIANWENZHANGJIANGLatch-up(http://ic-garden.cn/?p=511)JIUSHUOLE,ZHEIYANGDEJIEGOUZUIYAOMINGDEDONGXIJIUSHISHUANSUO(Latch-up)。ERKONGZHILatch-upDEGUANJIANJIUZAIYUKONGZHIRs,ZHIYAOMANZUα1+α2<1JIUKEYILE。

  LINGWAI,ZHEIYANGDEJIEGOUHAOCHUSHITIGAOLEDIANLIUQUDONGNENGLI,DANHUAICHUSHIDANGQIJIANGUANDUANSHI,GOUDAOHENKUAIGUANDUANMEIYOULEDUOZIDIANLIU,KESHICollector (Drain)DUANZHEIBIANHAIJIXUYOUSHAOZIKONGXUEZHURU,SUOYIZHENGGEQIJIANDEDIANLIUXUYAOMANMANCAINENGGUANBI(TUOWEIDIANLIU, tailing current),YINGXIANGLEQIJIANDEGUANDUANSHIJIANJIGONGZUOPINLV。ZHEIGEKESHIKAIGUANQIJIANDEDAJIA,SUOYIYOUYINRULEYIGEJIEGOUZAIP+YUN-driftZHIJIANJIARUN+bufferCENG,ZHEIYICENGDEZUOYONGJIUSHIRANGQIJIANZAIGUANDUANDESHIHOU,CONGCollectorDUANZHURUDEKONGXUEXUNSUZAIN+ bufferCENGJIUBEIFUHEDIAOTIGAOGUANDUANPINLV,WOMENCHENGZHEIZHONGJIEGOUWEIPT-IGBT (Punch ThroughXING),ERYUANLAIMEIYOUDAIN+bufferDEZEWEINPT-IGBT。

  

介绍


  YIBANQINGKUANGXIA,NPT-IGBTBIPT-IGBTDEVce(sat)GAO,ZHUYAOYINWEINPTSHIZHENGWENDUXISHU(P+CHENDIJIAOBOKONGXUEZHURUJIAOSHAO),ERPTSHIFUWENDUXISHU(YOUYUPCHENDIJIAOHOUSUOYIKONGXUEZHURUJIAODUOERDAOZHIDESANJIGUANJIQUDIAOZHIXIAOYINGMINGXIAN),ERVce(sat)JUEDINGLEKAIGUANSUNHAO(switch loss),SUOYIRUGUOXUYAOTONGYANGDEVce(sat),ZENPTBIXUYAOZENGJIAdriftHOUDU,SUOYIRonJIUZENGDALE。

  

1537274566428166.


  4、IGBT的制造工艺:

河北快3走势图  IGBTDEZHICHENGZHENGMIANHEBIAOZHUNBCDDELDMOSMEICHA,ZHISHIBEIMIANBIJIAONANGAO:

  1) BEIMIANJIANBO:YIBANYAOQIU6~8mil,ZHEIGEHOUDUHENNANMOLE,RONGYISUIPIAN。

河北快3走势图  2) BEIMIANZHURU:DOUMODAO6~8milLE,HAIYAODAHigh current P+ implant >E14DEdose,HENRONGYISUIPIANDE,BIXUYOUZHUANMENDESHEBEIdedicate。SHENZHIDISIDAIYOULIANGCIHi-currentZHURU,GENGSHITIAOZHANJIXIANLE。

河北快3走势图  3) BEIMIANQINGXI:ZHEIGEYIBANDESEZJIUKEYI。

  4) BEIMIANJINSHUHUA:ZHEIGEZHINENGYONGJINSHUZHENGFAGONGYI,Ti/Ni/AgBIAOZHUNGONGYI。

  5) BEIMIANAlloy:ZHUYAOKAOLVwaferTAIBOLE,RONGYIQIAOQUSUIPIAN。

河北快3走势图  5、IGBTDEXINJISHU:

  1) CHANGJIEZHIFS-IGBT:BUGUANPTHAISHINPTJIE GOUDOUBUNENGZUIZHONGMANZUWUXIANhigh powerDEYAOQIU,YAOZUODAOhigh power,JIUBIXUYAOJIANGDIVce(sat),YEJIUSHIJIANGDIRon。SUOYIBIXUYAOJIANGDIN-driftHOUDU,KESHIZHEIGEN-driftHOUDUYOUSHOUDAOJIEZHIZHUANGTAIDEDIANCHANGYUESHU (TAIBOLERONGYIchannelCHUANTONG)。SUOYIRUGUOYAOXIANGJIANGDIdriftHOUDU,BIXUYAORANGJIEZHIDIANCHANGDAOGOUDAOQIANTIQIANJIANGXIALAI。SUOYIXUYAOZAIP+ injection layerYUN-driftZHIJIANYINRUYIGEN+CHANGJIEZHICENG(Field Stop, FS),DANGIGBTCHUYUGUANBIZHUANGTAI,DIANCHANGZAIJIEZHICENGNEIXUNSUJIANGDIDAO0,DADAOZHONGZHIDEMUDE,SUOYIWOMENJIUKEYIJINYIBUJIANGDIN-driftHOUDUDADAOJIANGDIRonHEVceLE。 ERQIEZHEIGEJIEGOUHEN+ bufferJIEGOUFEICHANGLEISI,SUOYITAYEYOUPT-IGBTDEXIAOGUOYIZHIGUANBIZHUANGTAIXIADEtailingDIANLIUTIGAOGUANBISUDU。

  

1537274615950785.


  WENTILAILE,ZHEIHEPT-IGBTDEN+ bufferCHAZAINALI?QISHIZHIZHIZUOGONGYIBUYIYANG。PT-IGBTSHIYONGLIANGCENGEPIZUOCHULAIDE,TASHIZAIP+ CHENDISHANGZHANGDIYICENG~10umDEN+ buffer,RANHOUZAIZHANGDIERCENG~100umDEN-Drift。ZHEIGEcostHENGAOA!ERXIANGBIZHIXIADEFS-IGBTNI,SHIZAINPT-IGBTDEJICHUSHANGZHIJIEBEIMIAN DARUGAONONGDUDEN+JIEZHICENGJIUHAOLE,CHENGBENBIJIAODI,DANSHITIAOZHANSHIGENGBODEHOUDUXIARUHESHIXIANBUSUIPIAN。

  

1537274691282558.


河北快3走势图  2) YANGJIDUANJIE(SA: Shorted-Anode):TA DEJIEGOUSHIN+JIDIANJIJIANXIECHARUP+JIDIANJI,ZHEIYANGN+JIDIANJIZHIJIEJIECHUCHANGJIEZHICENGBINGYONGZUOPNERJIGUANDEYINJI,ERP+HAIJIXUZUOTADEFS-IGBTDEJIDIANJI,TAJUYOUZENGQIANGDEDIANLIUTEXINGQIEGAIBIANLECHENGBENJIEGOU,YINWEIBUXUYAOGONGFENGZHUANGFANBINGLIANERJIGUANLE。SHIYANZHENGMING,TAKEYITIGAOBAOHEDIANLIU,JIANGDIBAOHEYAJIANG(~12%)。

  

1537274710230513.


  6、IGBT的主要I-V特性:

  IGBTNIJIKEYIBATADANGZUOYIGEMOSFETYUPiNERJIGUANCHUANLIAN,YEKEYIDANGZUOSHIYIGEKUANJIQUDEPNPBEIMOSFETQUDONG(DarlinGTOnJIEGOU), QIANZHEKEYIYONGLAILIJIETADETEXING,HOUZHECAISHITADEYUANLI。TAKANQILAIJIUSHIYIGEMOSFETDEI-VQUXIANWANGHOUNUOLEYIDUAN(>0.7V),YINWEIGOUDAOKAIQICHANSHENGDIANLIUBIXUMANZUPIAOYIQUDIANLIUYUPIAOYIQUDIANZUCHENGJICHAOGUO0.7V,CAINENGSHIDEP+CHENDIYUN-driftDEPNJIEZHENGXIANGDAOTONG,ZHEIYANGCAIKEYIwork,FOUZEGOUDAOKAIQIYEBUNENGworkDE。

  ZUIHOUJIDAJIACHUICHUINIUBA,DAJIAJINGCHANGHUITINGDAODIYIDAIIGBTYIZHIDAODILIUDAIIGBT,ZHEIXIESHISHENMEYISINI?

河北快3走势图  1) DIYIDAI:TAJIUSHIIGBTDECHUXING,ZUIJIANDANDEYUANLIJIEGOUTUNEIZHONG,SUOYITABIXUYAOTIGAON-driftLAITIGAONAIYA,SUOYIDAOTONGDIANZUHEGUANDUANGONGHAODOUBIJIAOGAO,SUOYIMEIYOUPUJISHIYONG。

  2) DIERDAI:PT-IGBT,YOUYUHAOJINCENGBUNENGCHUANTOUN+HUANCHONGCENG,SUOYIJIQUDIANCHANGJIAQIANGCHENGTIXINGFENBU,SUOYIKEYIJIANXIAOXINPIANHOUDUCONGERJIANXIAOGONGHAO。ZHEIZHUYAOSHIXIMENZIGONGSI1990~1995NIANDECHANPINBSM150GB120DN1("DN1"JIUSHIDIYIDAIDEYISI)。TAZHUYAOZAI600VSHANGYOUYOUSHI(LEISIGTRTEXING),DAO1200VDESHIHOUYUDAOWAIYANHOUDUDACHENGBENGAO、QIEKEKAOXINGDIDEWENTI(CHANZANONGDUYIJIHOUDUDEJUNYUNXINGCHA)。

  3)DISANDAI:NPT-IGBT,BUZAICAIYONGWAIYANJISHU,ERSHICAIYONGLIZIZHURUDEJISHULAISHENGCHENGP+JIDIANJI(TOUMINGJIDIANJIJISHU),KEYIJINGZHUNDEKONGZHIJIESHENERKONGZHIFASHEXIAOLVJINKENENGDI,ZENGKUAIZAILIUZICHOUQUSUDULAIJIANGDIGUANDUANSUNHAO,KEYIBAOCHIJIQUYUANYOUDEZAILIUZISHOUMINGERBUHUIYINGXIANGWENTAIGONGHAO,TONGSHIJUYOUZHENGWENDUXISHUTEDIAN,SUOYIJISHUBIJIAOCHENGSHUZAIWENTAISUNHAOHEGUANDUANSUNHAOJIANQUDELEHENHAODEZHEZHONG,SUOYIBEIGUANGFANCAIYONG。DAIBIAOGONGSIYIRANSHIXIMENZIGONGSILVXIANCAIYONGFZ(QURONGFA)DAITIWAIYANDEPILIANGCHANPIN,DAIBIAOCHANPINBSM200GB120DN2,VCE>1200V, Vce(sat)=2.1V。

  4)DISIDAI:Trench-IGBT,ZUIDADEGAIJINSHICAIYONGTrenchJIEGOU,SHIDEGOUDAOCONGBIAOMIANPAODAOLECHUIZHIMIANSHANG,SUOYIJIQUDEPINXIAOYINGZENGQIANG,ZHAJIFUJINZAILIUZINONGDUZENGDA,CONGERTIGAOLEDIANDAODIAOZHIXIAOYINGJIANXIAOLEDAOTONGDIANZU,TONGSHIYOUYUGOUDAOBUZAIBIAOMIAN,SUOYIXIAOCHULEJFETXIAOYING,SUOYIZHAJIMIDUZENGJIABUSHOUXIANZHI,ERQIEZAIDISIDAIIGBTJIXUYANYONGLEDISANDAIDEJIDIANJIP+implantJISHUTONGSHIJIARULEDIERDAIDEPTJISHUZUOWEICHANGZHONGZHICENG,YOUXIAOTEGAONAIYANENGLIDENG。XUYAOSHIYONGSHUANGZHURUJISHU,NANDUJIAODA。ZHEIGESHIHOUSHIYINGFEILINGDESHIDAI LE,InfineonDEJIANBOJISHUSHIJIEDIYI,TADEHOUDUZAI1200VDESHIHOUKEYIJIANGDIDAO120um~140um(NPT-IGBTXUYAO200um),SHENZHIZAI600VKEYIJIANGDIDAO70um。

  5)DIWUDAI:FS-IGBTHEDILIUDAIDEFS-Trench,DIWU、DILIUDAICHANPINSHIZAIIGBTJINGLILESHANGSHUSICIJISHUGAIJINSHIJIANHOUDUIGEZHONGJISHUCUOSHIDEZHONGXINZUHE。DIWUDAIIGBTSHIDISIDAICHANPIN“TOUMINGJIDIANQUJISHU”YU“DIANCHANGZHONGZHIJISHU”DEZUHE。DILIUDAICHANPINSHIZAIDIWUDAIJICHUSHANGGAIJINLEGOUCAOZHAJIEGOU,BINGYIXINDEMIANMAOCHUXIAN。

  

1537274779798276.


  MUQIANWOGUODEZONGTINENGYUANLIYONGXIAOLVWEI33%ZUOYOU,BIFADAGUOJIADIYUE10GEBAIFENDIAN。DANGQIANWOGUOJIENENGGONGZUOMIANLINJIAODAYALI。

河北快3走势图  GENJU“SHIYIWUGUIHUA”YAOQIU,DAO2010NIANZHONGGUODENENGYUANSHIYONGXIAOLVJIANGZAI2005NIANJICHUSHANGTIGAO20%。ZAIXINNENGYUANLINGYU,ZHONGGUOYICHENGWEITAIYANGNENGDIANCHISHENGCHANDEDIYIDAGUO,FENGLIFADIANDELEIJIZHUANGJIRONGLIANGYELIANXU4NIANSHIXIANFANFAN,ZHEIYIWEIZHEZHONGGUOXINNENGYUANSHICHANGYUNZANGZHEJUDADESHANGJI。WULUNSHITAIYANGNENGDIANCHI、FENGLIFADIANHAISHIXINNENGYUANQICHE,QIXITONGYINGYONGDOUXUYAOBAZHILIUDIANZHUANHUANWEIJIAOLIUDIAN,CHENGDANZHEIYIRENWUDEBUJIANCHENGWEINIBIANQI。NIBIANQIDEHEXINQIJIANSHIIGBT(JUEYUANZHASHUANGJIXINGJINGTIGUAN),YESHIJIAGEZUIGAODEBUJIANZHIYI,ZAIGUOWAI,IGBTJISHUJICHANPINBUDUANGENGXINHUANDAI,ERWOGUOMUQIANHAIBUJUBEIDAPILIANGSHENGCHANIGBTDENENGLI,ZHUYAODOUSHIZHUHAINANCHE、BEICHESHENGCHANDEYONGYUGAOTIEDEIGBTJISHU,HAIYOUHUARUNWEIDIANZI(XIANGSHOUGOUFairchild),HAIYOUHUAHONGHONGLIMAOSIYEYOU,XIANZAIGUOJIAZHONGDIANFUCHI8CUNDEIGBTJISHU。(LAIYUAN:XINYUANWANG)

  

1537274808977967.




IGBT是什么?都在哪里有应用?


     从功能上来说,IGBT就是一个电路开关,用在电压几十到几百伏量级、电流几十到几百安量级的强电上的。(相对而言,手机、电脑电路板上跑的电电压低,以传输信号为主,都属于弱电。)可以认为就是一个晶体管,电压电流超大而已。

    家里的电灯开关是用按钮控制的。IGBT不用机械按钮,它是由计算机控制的。具体点说,IGBT的简化模型有3个接口,有两个(集电极、发射极)接在强电电路上,还有一个接收控制电信号,叫作门极。给门极一个高电平信号,开关(集电极与发射极之间)就通了;再给低电平信号,开关就断了。给门极的信号是数字信号(即只有高和低两种状态),电压很低,属于弱电,只要经过一个比较简单的驱动电路就可以和计算机相连。实际用的“计算机”通常是叫作DSP的微处理器,擅长处理数字信号,比较小巧。

     这种可以用数字信号控制的强电开关还有很多种。作为其中的一员,IGBT的特点是,在它这个电流电压等级下,它支持的开关速度是最高的,一秒钟可以开关几万次。GTO以前也用在轨道交通列车上,但是GTO开关速度低,损耗大,现在只有在最大电压电流超过IGBT承受范围才使用;IGCT本质上也是GTO,不过结构做了优化,开关速度和最大电压电流都介于GTO和IGBT之间;大功率MOSFET快是快,但不能支持这么大的电压电流,否则会烧掉。

      要这么快的开关干什么用?常见的强电只有50Hz的交流电,变压器能变它的电压,但是不能改变它的频率,不能把它变成直流。而有了IGBT这种开关,就可以设计出一类电路,通过计算机控制IGBT,把电源侧的交流电变成给定电压的直流电,或是把各种电变成所需频率的交流电,给负载使用。这类电路统称变换器。把交流电变成直流电的电路叫做整流器;把直流电变成交流电的叫做逆变器;直流变直流的叫开关电源;三相交流变交流的叫矩阵变换器。

      怎么实现的?需要讲一下PWM的概念,这里我可能说的不是很清楚。题主见没见过家里的照明灯接触不良的时候快速闪烁?闪烁的灯看起来没有正常的灯亮吧?这是因为闪烁的灯亮0.1秒,又灭0.1秒,总共0.2秒的时间内它只发出了正常灯0.1秒的光能,所以显得暗。强电本质上是传输电能,所以也可以利用这个原理。如果用电器内的电流几乎不变,用电器前0.2秒接了300V的电压,后0.1秒接了0V的电压,那在0.3秒内,它就等效于用电器两端始终接着200V的电压。我们管这个只持续0.2秒的300V电压叫脉冲,通过改脉冲在0.3秒内占据的时间,就可以实现等效电压在这个时刻内成为0~300V内的任何一个值,即所谓的脉宽调制(PWM)。电压一高一低变化的总时间越短,从宏观上看电压越接近等效电压。

1537274838718781.

维基百科日文的一张图,图示了通过PWM,得到不同电压直流电的方法。

1537274875169746.

    维基百科日文的一张图,图示了通过PWM,得到不同电压、频率的交流电的方法。

     当然你会问开关都断开了,为啥用电器里的电流几乎不变,那是因为开关不是直接和用电器串联的。实际的变换器电路会稍有些复杂,开关断开时,有另一条电路会自动启用,保证电流是连续的。(也有反过来的电路,开关断开时反而从电源给用电器供电,合上时不从电源供电。)要是没学过电容电感和二极管的话,知道有这么回事儿就可以了……

      总之,我现在有了电压、频率都受我控制的强电了。这个强电就可以用来驱动高铁的电机。现在高铁使用的都是交流电机,它结构简单且省电,但是转速很难调整。好在它的转速和输入交流电源的频率有很密切的关系,所以就可以用使用IGBT的变换器搞出电压、频率受控的强电,来灵活控制电机的转速。反映到高铁上,就是高铁列车的车速。这就是所谓的变压变频控制(VVVF)。

       除了高铁,像电动汽车、变频空调、风力发电机等很多用到交流电机的场合,都用得到IGBT及配套的这类电路来控制电机。太阳能电厂、电力储能等领域,主要用IGBT进行交流电、直流电之间的转换。


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