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英飞凌IGBT厂家 > 英飞凌IGBT模块问答 > 数字化IGBT驱动保护电路如何实现?

数字化IGBT驱动保护电路如何实现?

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SHENZHENYISHENGTONGKEJIYOUXIANGONGSI

时间 : 2018-09-18 21:02 浏览量 : 47
数字化驱动保护器总体方案设计

 数字化IGBT驱动保护电路如何实现?

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  脉冲变压器隔离的IGBT驱动保护方案

 TU1  MAICHONGBIANYAQIGELIDEIGBTQUDONGBAOHUFANGAN


图1为采用脉冲变压器进行信号隔离的IGBT驱动保护方案(王立虎,2012)。系统方案主要分为隔离前端的低压部分和隔离后端的高压部分。后端通过物理接口以压接的方式与IGBT模块进行连接,主要包括以下几个部分:功率驱动、VCE检测部分、短路检测及快速关断、欠压检测以及+15V和-10V的隔离电源。前端主要包括数字控制部分(FPGA或CPLD)、过温信号处理、电流信号处理、隔离电源驱动以及过载保护监测。其中数字控制部分包含错误处理,脉冲整形(短脉冲抑制)、互锁、死区时间以及DC/DC隔离电源的驱动信号。输入信号由外部控制单元提供,外部信号首先进入数字处理部分,在内部进行短脉冲抑制、互锁、死区设置等处理之后,通过脉冲调制,利用脉冲变压器传递到后端,在后端通过脉冲整形,还原驱动信号,因为该驱动信号的驱动功率不足以驱动大功率的IGBT模块,所以需通过功率放大来增加驱动功率,使IGBT模块在要求的时间内开通关断,这就是驱动部分的设计。功率放大所需要的电源来源于前端通过DC/DC隔离电源产生,在IGBT的工作过程中,功率放大所需要的电源如果欠压,将导致IGBT不能按照要求的速度开关,导致错误开关,甚至造成IGBT的直通损坏,因此上下两路电源都需要有欠压检测,以保证功率放大稳定。检测信号通过隔离传输到前端的数字部分进行处理。系统通过VCE检测到IGBT的短路信号后,首先在隔离后端对驱动信号进行快速关断,然后通过隔离传输到前端,进入数字部分进行处理。温度检测与过载检测在通过传感器检测后,直接输入到前端,通过信号的处理,向外部的客户端送出模拟信号,同时将错误信号送进数字部分做相关处理。DC/DC隔离电源采用全桥模式,数字部分输出的信号不足以驱动DC/DC全桥变换的主电路,因此DC/DC隔离电源的隔离前端需要有功率驱动部分。


光纤隔离的IGBT驱动方案

图2  光纤隔离的IGBT驱动方案

 

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驱动电路设计

 

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简单的数字化驱动电路

 TU3  JIANDANDESHUZIHUAQUDONGDIANLU


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 数字化动态门极驱动结构

图4  数字化动态门极驱动结构


随着IGBT驱动技术的不断发展,研究人员又提出了可以优化IGBT开关特性的动态门极驱动结构。图4为数字化动态门极驱动结构,其中图4(a)与图4(b)的工作原理大致相同。在IGBT的开关过程中,根据IGBT的开关特性,控制对应的开关管的通断来改变其门极驱动电阻的大小,调节IGBT的开通关断速率,优化其开关特性。而且,由于控制芯片的可编程性,在驱动功率足够大的情况下,可以通过调整各个开关管的通断组合方式,实现对不同厂家、不同电压等级、不同电流等级以及不同型号的IGBT的开关控制,大大提高了驱动器的兼容性。此外,图 4(b)所示的驱动结构只需要单路驱动电源便可满足开通关断的驱动电压要求。当要驱动IGBT开通时,通过控制开关管的通断,使发射极e端接至0V电位,门极G接至+15V电位,在门极和发射极之间产生+15V开通驱动电压。当要驱动IGBT关断时,使发射极e端接至+15V电位,门极接通0V电位,在门极和发射极之间产生-15V关断电压。这有利于降低电源的设计成本,减小驱动器的体积(王亮亮等,2016a)。

 

数字化保护电路设计


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一种数字化保护电路的实现方法

图5  一种数字化保护电路的实现方法

 

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